CG&D
HOME HELP FEEDBACK SUBSCRIPTIONS ARCHIVE SEARCH TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cancer Research Clinical Cancer Research
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Molecular Cancer Research Cell Growth & Differentiation

This Article
Right arrow Abstract Freely available
Right arrow Full Text (PDF)
Right arrow Alert me when this article is cited
Right arrow Alert me if a correction is posted
Services
Right arrow Similar articles in this journal
Right arrow Similar articles in PubMed
Right arrow Alert me to new issues of the journal
Right arrow Download to citation manager
Right arrow
Citing Articles
Right arrow Citing Articles via HighWire
Right arrow Citing Articles via Google Scholar
Google Scholar
Right arrow Articles by Athanassiou, M.
Right arrow Articles by Mikheev, A. M.
Right arrow Search for Related Content
PubMed
Right arrow PubMed Citation
Right arrow Articles by Athanassiou, M.
Right arrow Articles by Mikheev, A. M.
Cell Growth & Differentiation Vol. 10, 729-737, November 1999
© 1999 American Association for Cancer Research


Articles

Stabilization and Reactivation of the p53 Tumor Suppressor Protein in Nontumorigenic Revertants of HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells1

Maria Athanassiou2, Yanwen Hu, Lichen Jing, Benoit Houle3, Helmut Zarbl and Andrei M. Mikheev2,, 4

Program in Cancer Biology, Division of Public Health, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98104-2092 [M. A., L. J., B. H., H. Z., A. M. M.], and Division of Toxicology and Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 [M. A., Y. H., B. H., H. Z., A. M. M.]

Abstract

We demonstrated previously that loss of in vitro transformation and in vivo tumorigenicity in two independent revertant clones of HeLa cells (designated HA and HF) resulted from dominant-acting genetic changes. Analysis of the p53 tumor suppressor gene revealed stabilization and at least partial restoration of wild-type p53 transactivation properties pathways in both revertants of HPV-induced cell transformation. The half-lives of the p53 protein and both of the HA and HF clones were increased {approx}4 fold compared with the parental HeLa cells (16, 17, and 4 min, respectively). The levels of E6 viral protein expression were similar in the three cell lines, whereas the levels of the ubiquitin ligase protein, E6 associated protein (E6-AP), were elevated in the revertants. Western blot analysis of immunoaffinity-purified p53 demonstrated that stabilization of p53 in the revertants was correlated with a reduction in the in vivo formation of complexes involving the E6 oncoprotein and p53. Stabilization of p53 function in the revertants did not result from mutations in either the p53 or E6-AP genes. Despite the observed stabilization and restoration of p53 transactivation function in the revertants, exposure of the revertants to DNA-damaging agents did not result in elevated levels of p21waf-1 protein and failed to induce growth arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. However, p53-independent induction of p21waf-1 protein also failed to induce the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Thus, restoration of wild-type p53 transactivation activity in the HA and HF revertants is insufficient to induce G1 arrest and reversion from HPV-induced cell transformation in our model system.

Introduction

Cervical carcinoma is the second most common gynecological cancer, annually claiming about 500,000 lives worldwide. Nonproductive infection by the "high risk" HPVs types 16, 18, 31, 33, and 39, with consequent unregulated expression of the E6 and E7 transforming viral oncogenes, has been implicated in >90% of all cervical carcinomas (1) .

It was demonstrated that high-risk HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, respectively, have high affinities for binding to the p53 and Rb tumor suppressor gene products and result in inactivation of their functions (2) . E7, like SV40 large T and adenovirus E1A proteins, inhibits the negative regulatory effect of Rb5 on transcription factor E2F. E6, like adenovirus E1B and SV40 large T antigen, inhibits the transcription transactivation and cell cycle regulatory functions of p53 (3 , 4) . Cervical carcinomas that do not carry an integrated high-risk HPV genome invariably harbor inactivating mutations in the Rb and p53 tumor suppressor genes.

Of these two tumor suppressor genes targeted by HPVs, p53 mutation is the most commonly reported change in human oncogenesis (5) . Wild-type p53 has distinct DNA binding and transcription factor properties (6) . The p53 protein levels and DNA binding activity are inducible by DNA-damaging agents such as actinomycin D and {gamma}-irradiation. Induction of p53 is followed by the transcriptional activation of genes involved in DNA repair (7, 8, 9) . Wild-type p53 also blocks cell cycle progression when it is overexpressed or in response to DNA damage (10) and has been implicated in apoptosis (11) . Mutation or inactivation by viral oncogenes inhibit the transactivation function of p53 and affect its physiological effects on cell growth, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis (11 , 12) . The major mechanism of control of p53 expression appears to be through protein stability (posttranslational modification), and several observations have supported the hypothesis that HPV E6 modulates p53 function by targeting the protein for ubiquitination and rapid degradation (13) .

We described previously the isolation and characterization of two independent, clonal, nontumorigenic variants of the HeLa cervical carcinoma cell line (ATCC CCL2) after exposure to the mutagen ethylmethanesulfonate (14) . When compared with parental HeLa cells, the HA and HF revertants show reduced clonogenicity in semisolid medium and fail to induce s.c. tumors upon injection in nude mice. Furthermore, ectopic overexpression of E6, E7, or both oncogenes failed to retransform HA or HF, excluding the possibility that reversion resulted from mutations within the HPV oncogenes. Somatic cell fusion experiments between HeLa and each of the revertants demonstrated that in both clones, the revertant phenotype resulted from the activation of one or more endogenous tumor suppressor genes.

In the present study, we investigated the status and function of p53 tumor suppressor protein in revertant cells. The results demonstrated that increased levels of wild-type p53 protein expression in the revertants resulted from protein stabilization. Stabilization of p53 in the revertants resulted from decreased formation of protein complexes between the viral E6 oncoprotein and p53, despite the presence of high levels of functional E6 protein expression in all cell lines. Previous studies have shown that high affinity binding of E6 to p53 requires the presence of E6-AP (15) . E6-AP is E3 ligase that triggers multi-ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of p53, and the interaction of E6, E6-AP, and p53 has been demonstrated in vitro (16) . We therefore examined the revertants for altered expression or mutations in E6-AP. The results indicated that the E6-AP was wild-type in both revertants and that expression of the protein was actually increased in revertants relative to HeLa cells.

In studies using a dominant-negative form of E6-AP, it was recently shown that E6-AP is also involved in p53 degradation in vivo (17) . Other in vivo studies found that inhibition of E6-AP expression by antisense oligonucleotide results in an increased level of p53 protein expression only in cells infected with "high risk" HPV (18) . These findings suggested that stabilization of p53 might be sufficient to inhibit high-risk HPV-induced cell transformation. To determine whether p53 was in fact contributing to the phenotypic reversion of HA and HF cells, we examined the expression of p21waf-1, a direct target of the p53 transcriptional transactivation in vivo. Unexpectedly, our results indicated that the revertants did not express elevated levels of the p21waf-1 protein. Although exposure of cells to DNA-damaging agents did induce p21waf-1 mRNA levels in the revertants, the levels of p21waf-1 protein remained unchanged and comparable with those in HeLa cells. As expected from the failure to induce p21waf-1, DNA damage failed to induce cell cycle arrest in the revertant cells. Moreover, induction of p21waf-1 protein expression in the revertants with L-mimosine also failed to arrest cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Thus, stabilization and restoration of wild-type p53-mediated transactivation is not sufficient to induce cell cycle arrest or reversion from the HPV-induced cell transformed phenotype. In addition, the p21waf-1 pathway is not involved in reversion of the transformed phenotype of HeLa cells.

Results

Steady-State p53 Protein Levels Are Increased in Revertants as Compared with HeLa Cells.
Consistent with the hypothesis that the p53 protein cell is targeted for rapid degradation by HPV-18 E6, the level of p53 protein in HeLa cells was found to be very low, whereas p53 mRNA levels were comparable with those seen in primary cells (19) . We compared steady-state p53 protein levels in parental HeLa and revertant cells by Western and Northern blotting (Fig. 1)Citation . The p53 protein levels in both revertants were consistently higher than levels seen in HeLa cells for any given set of growth conditions (Fig. 1A)Citation . Laser densitometric analysis of the autoradiograms from four independent experiments showed that the p53 protein levels in the revertants were on average {approx}5-fold higher than in HeLa cells. Comparable results were obtained when cell number rather than total protein was used to normalize cell extracts from the three cell lines prior to Western blotting (not shown). Similar differences in p53 levels were found using nuclear extracts and total cell lysate, suggesting that p53 is accumulated in nuclei. Thus, relative to parental HeLa cells, both revertants expressed elevated steady-state levels of p53 protein, whereas the steady-state levels of mRNA were comparable in all three cell lines (Fig. 1B)Citation . These observations suggested an alteration in posttranslational regulation of the p53 protein in the both the HA and HF revertant clones.



View larger version (53K):
[in this window]
[in a new window]
 
Fig. 1. Wild-type p53 protein levels are higher in the HA and HF revertants compared with parental HeLa cells, but p53 mRNA levels remain unchanged. A, 25 µg of nuclear extract protein were separated by SDS-PAGE. The p53 protein was detected by Western blot with p53-specific antibody (DO-1) and a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody and chemoluminescence. B, Northern blot analysis of total RNA extracted from HeLa (H), HA (A), HF (F), and Saos-2 (S) cells. The filter was probed with 32P-labeled p53 cDNA. C, ethidium bromide-stained filter used for Northern blot analysis.

 
The p53 and E6-AP Genes Are Wild-Type in the Revertants.
An increase in the p53 protein half-life has been associated with a variety of point mutations that induce either a loss of the growth-suppressing functions or a gain in growth-promoting functions of p53 (6) . It was thus necessary to determine the mutational status of the p53 gene in each revertant. To demonstrate that the p53 genes expressed in the revertants were wild type, p53 mRNA from HeLa and revertant cells was analyzed by RNase protection assays (Ambion Inc., Austin, TX). We also sequenced exons 4 to 11 of the p53 coding sequences in at least a dozen cDNA clones prepared from revertant and HeLa cell mRNA. These exons include the regulatory and DNA-binding regions of the p53 protein and contain >90% of the mutations observed in human tumors. No mutations were detected within p53 cDNA using either approach (not shown). These results suggested increased expression of wild-type p53 protein in both the HA and HF revertants.

Previous studies have shown that the region of E6-AP protein between amino acid 280 to amino acid 865 is necessary and sufficient for interaction with E6 and p53 proteins and the subsequent ubiquitination of the p53 (20) . We thus performed cDNA sequencing of this region of the E6-AP gene in all three cell lines. The results failed to detect any mutations within this region of E6-AP in either of the revertants or in HeLa cells (data not shown). Thus, both p53 and the functional region of the E6-AP genes are wild type in the HA and HF revertant cell lines.

The Half-Life of p53 Is Increased in Revertants.
Studies have shown that the HPV E6 protein targets p53 for degradation (15) via the ubiquitin-mediated proteosome pathway. The results presented above were consistent with restoration of p53 protein levels in the revertants to physiological levels. We therefore investigated whether the p53 in the revertants had increased stability relative to that of parental HeLa cells. To estimate the half-life of p53, HeLa, HA, and HF, cell lysates were prepared before and at 15, 30, and 50 or 60 min after exposure to CHX (21) . Levels of p53 protein in untreated and CHX-treated cell lysates were determined by quantitative analyses of Western blots (Fig. 2A)Citation . Regression analysis revealed that the half-life of the p53 protein in both revertants was at least 4-fold longer than in HeLa cells (HA, 16 min; HF, 17 min; HeLa, 4 min; Fig. 2BCitation ). Similar results were obtained using [35S]methionine pulse-chase experiments (not shown). Thus, in both revertants, increased levels of p53 protein resulted from stabilization of the p53 protein.



View larger version (26K):
[in this window]
[in a new window]
 
Fig. 2. The half-life of the p53 protein in revertants is increased 4-fold over that seen in the parental HeLa cells. A, a representative Western blot analysis of cellular lysates from HeLa, HA, and HF at various intervals after treatment with the inhibitor of protein synthesis CHX and probed with anti-p53 antibody (DO-1). B, quantitative analysis of Western blots by laser densitometry. The average densitometric values from three independent experiments were plotted as a percentage of p53 remaining as a function of time after CHX treatment. The p53 half-life for each cell line was calculated using the regression equation. {circ}, HeLa, {square}, HA, {diamond}, HF.

 
Interruption of E6-p53 Binding in the Revertants.
The interaction of p53 with E6 has not been documented previously in vivo. Technical problems that make this interaction difficult to detect include the low abundance of E6 and p53 in cervical carcinoma cells with HPV integrations and the transient nature of the interaction. We compared levels of E6 protein expression in cell lines. We detected the very similar levels of E6 HPV protein in all cell lines using a combination of immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting (Fig. 3A)Citation . Assuming that a large amount of starting material is an important prerequisite for detection of E6-p53 interaction, we used 2, 10, and 20 mg of total protein from each cell line for immunoaffinity purification of p53. Small portions of each column eluate were used to confirm purification of p53 (Fig. 3B)Citation . Column eluate was concentrated, and proteins were separated on 15% SDS gel. Western blot analysis was performed using same E6 HPV antibody as in Fig. 3ACitation . We detected the Mr 18,000 E6 protein in p53 immunocomplexes isolated from HeLa cells (Fig. 3C)Citation . In contrast, the E6 protein band was below the detection limit in p53 immunoisolates from the HA and HF revertants, despite the fact that p53 levels were higher in these preparations (Fig. 3B)Citation . We obtained similar results from an independent experiment using 10 mg of starting material. However, we failed to detect E6 HPV protein using 2 mg of total protein, suggesting that the amount of starting material is very important.



View larger version (45K):
[in this window]
[in a new window]
 
Fig. 3. Reduced binding activity of E6 protein to p53 in revertants. A, detection of E6 protein in HeLa and revertants. E6 protein was immunoprecipitated and loaded with 15% SDS-PAGE. Antibody C1P5 were used for detection of E6 protein in immunoprecipitates by Western blot. The membrane was cut on the level of Mr 26,000 corresponding position of immunoglobulin light chain. B, 20 mg of total protein from each cell line were immunopurified on a column with attached p53-specific antibody (1801). Less than 10% of eluate from each cell line was loaded on 10% gel, and p53 protein was detected using Western blot. The rest of the column eluate was concentrated and loaded on 15% gel (C). E6 protein was detected using same antibody as in A.

 
An immunoreactive protein with a molecular weight of Mr {approx}27,000 was present in every cell line, including Saos-2, and probably corresponds to a small quantity of immunoglobulin light chain that leached from the affinity column during sample elution. The immunoglobulin protein was only detected when using long X-ray film exposure times for E6 detection (35 min) but was not detectable when using shorter film exposure for p53 detection (<30 s). These results demonstrated that in both the HA and HF revertants, the levels of HPV 18-E6 oncoprotein are very similar. However, the steady-state level of complexes, including the E6 protein and the p53 suppressor protein, was significantly reduced in both revertants relative to levels in the parental HeLa cells.

Steady-State Levels of E6-AP Protein Are Elevated in Revertants.
E6-AP is essential for degradation of p53 in HPV-positive cells. E6-AP also appears to be necessary for high-affinity binding of the viral E6 oncoprotein to p53 and for ubiquitination of p53 (13 , 16) . To determine whether reduced expression of E6-AP contributed to the decreased stability of complexes with E6, and stabilization of p53 in the revertants resulted, we compared the expression of E6-AP among the cell lines. The results of Northern blot analyses indicated that the steady-state levels of E6-AP mRNA were comparable in all cell lines (Fig. 4, A and B)Citation . However, a comparison of the protein levels by Western blotting revealed increased steady-state levels of E6-AP protein in the revertants compared with HeLa cells (Fig. 4C)Citation . These results suggest that E6-AP is not a limiting factor for p53 degradation in the cells, and expression of E6-AP in the revertants was increased by a posttranslational mechanism.



View larger version (38K):
[in this window]
[in a new window]
 
Fig. 4. Steady-state levels of E6-AP mRNA are unchanged, whereas the levels of E6-AP protein are increased in both revertants compared with HeLa cells. A, Northern blot analysis of total RNA extracted from HeLa, HA, and HF. The filter was probed with 32P-labeled E6-AP cDNA. B, ethidium bromide-stained membrane used for E6-AP mRNA detection. C, Western blot analysis of cellular lysates probed with anti-E6-AP polyclonal antibody.

 
Induction of p53 by Actinomycin D in Revertants.
Disruption of E6 interaction with p53 and accumulation of p53 protein in nuclei suggested restoration of wild-type properties of p53 in both revertants. Wild-type p53 protein is stabilized in response to a wide range of stimuli, including exposure to DNA-damaging agents (7) . We examined the response of HeLa and revertant cells to treatment with actinomycin D and irradiation (not shown). Consistent with the presence of wild-type p53 in HeLa cells, continuous exposure of these cells to actinomycin D resulted in elevated levels of p53 protein (Fig. 5)Citation . However, in HeLa cells, p53 declined between 12 and 24 h after exposure, whereas in both revertants, induction of p53 protein was observed for up to 24 h after exposure. The p53 protein continued to accumulate in HA and HF at rates that were 18- and 13-fold faster, respectively, than in HeLa cells. After 24 h of exposure to actinomycin D, p53 protein in the revertants exceeded that in the treated HeLa cells by 5–10-fold, comparable with those detected in control FS4 normal human foreskin fibroblasts (Fig. 5)Citation . Induction of p53 was attributable to posttranslational mechanism, because no induction of p53 mRNA levels were observed in any of the cell lines after actinomycin D treatment (data not shown).



View larger version (18K):
[in this window]
[in a new window]
 
Fig. 5. Induction of p53 by DNA damage is faster and leads to higher p53 levels in the revertants (HA and HF) than in HeLa cells. Cells were induced with 0.45 nM of actinomycin D (ACTD) for 0, 12, and 24 h before lysis. Western blot analyses were performed using 25 µg of total cell lysate and probed with an anti-p53-specific antibody (DO-1). FS-4-human foreskin fibroblasts and Saos-2 cells were used as a positive and negative control for p53 induction, respectively.

 
Elevated p53-induced Promoter Transactivation in the Revertants as Compared with HeLa Cells.
We next determined whether the changes in p53 protein expression led to a corresponding increase of p53 function in the revertants. It has been reported that wild-type p53 protein binds to defined DNA sequences with high affinity and specificity (22) . To assay p53 transcriptional transactivation activity, we performed transient transfection assays using p53-responsive reporter constructs. The results from three independent experiments normalized for differences in transfection efficiencies among the cell lines are summarized in Fig. 6Citation . Activities of the pMG15 construct, which harbors mutant p53 consensus binding sites, were at the background level in all three cell lines. When wild-type pG13CAT construct was used, p53 transactivation activity in the parental HeLa cells was also at the level of background. By contrast, HA and HF revertants demonstrated, respectively, 25- and 30-fold higher levels of CAT activity than those detected in HeLa cells. These results demonstrated that the elevated levels of p53 protein in the revertants resulted in elevated p53-specific transactivation of an exogenous, p53-responsive promoter.



View larger version (18K):
[in this window]
[in a new window]
 
Fig. 6. Comparison of p53-induced transcriptional transactivation activity in revertants and in HeLa cells using reporter constructs harboring multiple p53 wild-type (pG13CAT) or mutant (-MG15CAT) consensus binding sequences. Promoter activities were assessed by measuring the rate of CAT conversion in lysates prepared from 5 x 106 cells transiently transfected with 10 µg of pG13CAT or pMG15CAT. No DNA, background CAT conversion rates determined in lysates from cells that were electropulsed in the absence of DNA. CAT values are normalized by transfection efficiency as described by Bahramian and Zarbl (33) . {square}, no DNA; , pMG15CAT; , pG13CAT.

 
Inducible p21waf-1 Expression in the Revertants but not in HeLa Cells.
We next asked whether the increased p53 proteins levels expressed in the revertants in response to DNA damage were also functional in the transactivation of endogenous target genes. The induction of p21waf-1 gene by wild-type p53 is mediated by direct binding of the p53 tetramer to the consensus sequence present in the p21waf-1 promoter (23) . Northern blot analysis demonstrated that 5 h after exposure to {gamma}-irradiation, p21waf-1 mRNA transcription was induced in the revertants but not in HeLa cells (Fig. 7)Citation . The level of induction of p21waf-1 mRNA by DNA damage in revertants was {approx}4–5-fold. However, the increased mRNA levels did not give rise to a corresponding increase in p21waf-1 protein levels for up to 24 h after cell irradiation or actinomycin D treatment (not shown). Inducibility of p21waf-1 mRNA but not protein by {gamma}-irradiation indicated that the wild-type p53 protein induced in the revertants was only partially functional in vivo.



View larger version (47K):
[in this window]
[in a new window]
 
Fig. 7. Induction of p21waf-1 mRNA transcription in HeLa cells and revertants after {gamma}-irradiation. Total mRNA (15 µg) from HeLa, HA, and HF exposed to 0 or 5 Gy of {gamma}-irradiation were separated in agarose gel containing formaldehyde, transferred to nylon membranes, and hybridized to [32P]dCTP-labeled p21waf-1 cDNA probe. B, ethidium bromide staining of the Northern blot.

 
G1 Arrest Is Abrogated in HeLa Cells and Revertants.
A number of studies demonstrated that exposure of cells with wild-type p53 and p21waf-1 to DNA-damaging agents elicits growth arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle (10) . The observed failure of DNA-damaging agents to induce p21waf-1 protein in the revertant cells predicts that the latter cells should not undergo G1 arrest after the exposure to DNA-damaging agents. We therefore performed cell cycle analysis after treatment with actinomycin D or irradiation. The results from at least three independent experiments, presented as a ratio of the number of cells in G1 to S phase (G1-S), are shown in Fig. 8ACitation . As expected, treatment of human foreskin fibroblasts with actinomycin D increased the G1-S ratio {approx}5-fold, reflecting efficient G1 arrest in these HPV-free control cells. In untreated cells, the G1-S ratio was very similar, suggesting that HeLa and revertants do not have differences in cell cycle distribution. The data in Fig. 5Citation had indicated that exposure of HeLa cells to actinomycin D resulted in only a small and transient increase in p53 protein levels. It was therefore not surprising that actinomycin D did not alter the G1-S ratio significantly in HeLa cells. As predicted from the inability to induce p21waf-1 protein, we also failed to detect G1 arrest in both revertants after actinomycin D treatment. Similar results were obtained using BrdUrd incorporation (not shown). Thus, despite the elevated steady-state levels of p53 and the inducibility of p53 protein in the revertants, actinomycin D treatment failed to arrest cells in the G1 phase of cell cycle.



View larger version (29K):
[in this window]
[in a new window]
 
Fig. 8. Actinomycin D (Act. D) and L-mimosine failed to induce G1 arrest in HeLa and revertants. Unsynchronized cells were treated with actinomycin D (A) or L-mimosine (B) for 24 h at a concentration of 1 nM and 250 µM, respectively. Cell cycle analysis was performed as described in "Materials and Methods." Fibroblasts and the BICR mammary carcinoma cell line were used as positive controls for actinomycin D and L-mimosine treatments, respectively.

 
To demonstrate that the inability of the HeLa cells and the revertants to arrest in G1 after DNA damage was independent of p53 protein levels, cells were treated with L-mimosine, a p53-independent inducer of p21waf-1 (24) . As control cells, we used the BICR-M1Rk rat mammary tumor cell line (25) , which has lost the capability to induce p53 and p21waf-1 and G1 arrest in response to DNA damage signals induced by actinomycin D treatment.6 However, these cells retained the capacity for p53-independent induction of p21waf-1 and G1 arrest in response to L-mimosine treatment (Fig. 8B)Citation . By contrast, neither the HeLa cells nor the revertants were able to respond to L-mimosine treatment by inducing a G1 arrest, despite the fact that L-mimosine induced p21waf-1 protein expression (Fig. 9)Citation . Lack of a p21waf-1-induced G1 arrest in HeLa suggested the disruption of effector pathways downstream of p21waf-1 in HeLa cells that remains functionally inactive in the revertants. Taken together, our results indicate that the p21waf-1 cell cycle regulatory-dependent pathway does not contribute significantly to the HeLa cell reversion from HPV-induced transformation.



View larger version (24K):
[in this window]
[in a new window]
 
Fig. 9. Induction of p21waf-1 protein expression in HeLa and revertants with L-mimosine. Cells were treated with 250 µM L-mimosine and harvested 24 h later. Extracted proteins were loaded on 15% SDS-PAGE and subjected to Western blot analysis. The p21waf-1 protein was detected with a p21waf-1 specific antibody and a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody.

 
Discussion

We reported previously the isolation and characterization of two independent, nontransformed, nontumorigenic revertant clones of the HeLa cervical cancer cell line that resulted from the activation of tumor suppressor genes (14) . Given that continuous expression of both the E6 and E7 oncogenes appears to be necessary for maintenance of both in vitro transformation and in vivo tumorigenicity of HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, the simplest explanation for the revertant phenotypes would be inactivating mutations in the HPV E6 or E7 oncogenes. However, we have demonstrated that the levels of both viral oncoproteins were comparable in revertants and parental HeLa cells, and that ectopic expression of wild-type E6 and E7 failed to retransform either revertant clone. These results indicated that the revertant phenotypes did not result from a loss of function mutations in E6 and/or E7. Our previous study also indicated that the revertant phenotypes of both the HA and HF clones were dominant in the cell fusion experiment. These observations were consistent with the hypothesis that the revertants had sustained activating mutations in one or more tumor suppressor genes. Alternatively, the revertants could have sustained dominant-negative mutations in cellular genes that function as essential effectors of the E6 or E7 pathways, thereby allowing functional reactivation of the wild-type p53 and/or Rb genes.

We observed that a common molecular change distinguishing both revertants from the parental transformed HeLa cell line was an increase in the steady state levels of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. However, Northern blot analyses revealed no quantitative differences in p53 mRNA expression among the three cell lines, indicating that increased p53 levels resulted from altered posttranslational regulation in the revertants. Although the vast majority of stabilizing p53 mutations have been primarily associated with loss of wild-type p53 function, it was still necessary to rule out the presence of any p53 mutations in the revertants. RNase protection assays on the entire p53 open reading frame and direct sequencing of exons 4 to 11 of the p53 cDNA revealed no mutations in any of the cell lines. It is thus unlikely that the increased levels of p53 protein in the revertants were attributable to mutations in the p53 gene.

Our results further showed that increased p53 protein expression in the revertants was the result of posttranslational regulation. We demonstrated that the half-life of the p53 protein in the revertants was 4-fold higher than in the transformed parental cells. Increased stability of p53 in HA and HF cells could be a result of disruption of the E6/E6-AP/p53 protein complex, which triggers p53 ubiquitination and degradation. Previous studies showed that a lack of expression and/or mutations in E6-AP could affect E6-mediated binding and degradation of p53 (16 , 17) . Neither revertant was found to harbor mutations within the region of E6-AP protein sufficient for interaction with viral E6 and ubiquitination of the p53 protein. We also failed to detect any significant differences in steady-state levels E6-AP mRNA among the cell lines. In fact, the E6-AP protein levels were increased in revertants compared with parental HeLa cells. The latter result suggested that stabilization of p53 protein in the revertants was not attributable to limiting amounts of E6-AP. Therefore, stabilization of p53 in the revertants does not appear to result from mutations affecting the expression or function of p53, E6, or E6-AP. However, our data cannot rule out differential posttranslational modification of one or more of these proteins that lead to the disruption of E6/E6-AP/p53 complex in the revertants. Such a mechanism would lead to accumulation of the E6-AP, which might otherwise be degraded along with p53.

To determine whether the interaction E6 with p53 was altered in the revertants, we used a combination of immunoaffinity purification and immunoblotting to detect p53-E6 protein complex formation in the HeLa cells. We found similar levels of E6 protein levels in HeLa and revertant cells using immunoprecipitation and Western blot. Immunaffinity purification from 10 and 20 mg of total protein allowed detection of an Mr 18,000 band in HeLa cell that was not detected in revertants or Saos-2 cells. These results provided evidence for reduced E6 binding to p53 in both revertants.

We next investigated whether the increased p53 protein levels in HA and HF revertants also results in elevated wild-type p53 activity. We characterized the revertants for functions that indicate the presence of a functional, wild-type p53 protein including: (a) p53 stabilization in response to DNA damage; (b) transactivation of promoter construct in transient transfection assay; (c) transactivation of endogenous p53 target genes; and (d) G1 arrest in response to DNA damage.

Exposure of cells to DNA-damaging agents such as UV and {gamma}-irradiation or actinomycin D has been shown to induce p53 protein levels and cell cycle arrest in cells that express a wild-type p53 gene. The resulting increase in p53 protein levels has also been shown to enhance the DNA binding affinity of the wild-type protein to its specific binding sites (22 , 23) . In the present study, exposure to actinomycin D (Fig. 5)Citation or {gamma}-irradiation (not shown) invariably resulted in the induction of p53 protein in the revertants and HeLa cells, indicating the presence of normal p53 in all of the cells. Exposure to the DNA-damaging agent produced p53 protein levels that were 5–10 times higher in the revertants than in the parental HeLa cells. Induction of p53 protein in revertants was attributable to altered posttranslational modification of the protein in the revertants, because no significant stimulation of p53 mRNA level was observed for up to 24 h after actinomycin D treatment in any of the cell lines. In transient transfection assays, we compared the activities of p53-responsive reporter constructs that are frequently used to screen cells for loss or gain of function mutations in the p53 gene. Consistent with the presence of wild-type p53, our assays revealed that p53 transactivating activities in HA and HF were, respectively, 30- and 20-fold higher than in HeLa cells.

To determine whether the elevated wild-type p53 transactivation function contributed to the phenotype of the revertants, we next the assessed p21waf-1 mRNA levels in HeLa cells and the revertants before and after DNA damage. The p21waf-1 gene was first identified by its differential induction by wild-type but not by mutant p53. The p53-dependent induction of waf-1 gene expression after treatment with {gamma}-irradiation in cells with normal p53 is well documented (23) . The p21 gene product was subsequently found to encode an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase complexes (26) , thus implicating wild-type p53 function in cell cycle control. We found that p21waf-1 mRNA was inducible in both revertants but not in HeLa cells, confirming that there is reactivation of wild-type p53-dependent transcription in revertants. However, the levels of p21waf-1 protein were not increased in untreated or treated revertant cells. One possible explanation for these observations is that stabilization of p21waf-1 mRNA may be necessary for its efficient translation. Consistent with such an interpretation, the results of control experiments indicated that treatment of HPV-free cells with actinomycin D resulted in a >20-fold increase of p21waf-1 mRNA, whereas only a 4–5-fold increase was detectable in the revertants (not shown).

To investigate whether disruption of the p21waf-1 pathway contributed to the phenotype of the HA or HF revertants, we treated cells with L-mimosine, a p53-independent inducer of p21waf-1 that also results in stabilizes p21waf-1 mRNA (24) . Despite the efficient induction of p21waf-1 in L-mimosine-treated revertants, the latter also failed to arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. One interpretation of these findings is that HeLa cells lack downstream effector pathways for p21waf-1-mediated G1 cell cycle arrest. Consistent with such a model, recent studies have shown that the HPV E7 oncogene, which inactivates the Rb protein in HeLa cells, can abrogate the DNA damage-induced checkpoint (27) . Thus, functional inactivation of Rb could be responsible for the inability of p21waf-1 to induce G1 arrest in the revertants. This conclusion is consistent with the key role of Rb protein in p53-dependent G1 arrest found in fibroblasts (28) . Alternatively, the failure to induce G1 arrest could result from the ability of the E7 oncoprotein to prevent p21waf-1-mediated inhibition of CDK2/cyclin E activity and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-dependent DNA replication (29) . Consistent with the latter interpretation are the results of studies showing that L-mimosine does not prevent accumulation of cyclin A in HeLa cells (30) and that cells can be arrested by L-mimosine once they enter S phase (31) . A prediction from this model is that the HPV E7 viral oncoprotein remains active in revertants. It is therefore likely that the failure of HeLa cells and the revertants to arrest cells in G1 p53-independent induction of p21waf-1 by L-mimosine is caused by an active E7 oncogene.

In conclusion, molecular characterization of revertants obtained from HeLa cells revealed stabilization of p53 compared with the parental cell line. Stabilization of p53 protein is a result of reduced interaction of p53 and E6. Induction of p53 protein and p21waf-1 mRNA after DNA damage suggested at least partial activation of transactivating properties of p53. Previous studies have suggested that stabilization of p53 by antisense oligonucleotides (18) or dominant-negative mutants of E6-AP (17) might provide effective gene therapy for cervical carcinoma. The results of the present study indicate that that stabilization of p53 is insufficient to induce cell cycle arrest or inhibit HPV-induced transformation.

Materials and Methods

Cell Culture.
HeLa CCL2, HA, HF, FS4, BICR-M1Rk, and Saos-2 cells (American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD) were grown in DMEM or MEM supplemented with 10% calf serum (Hyclone, Logan, UT) or with 10% Nu Serum (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ). Cells were grown to 50%–80% confluence prior to treatment with actinomycin D (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO) or exposure to a single dose of {gamma}-irradiation. Cells were harvested at appropriate time intervals after treatment as noted.

Plasmids.
The pG13CAT and pMG15CAT used in CAT assays were kindly provided by Dr. Bert Vogelstein. Briefly, both reporter constructs contain the CAT reporter gene under the control of basal promoters with 13 repeats of the p53 consensus binding site and 15 repeats of a mutated consensus site, respectively. To generate plasmid pSP73-p53-B/S used in RNase protection assays, a 1300-bp BamHI/SmaI fragment containing the entire wild-type p53 open reading frame DNA sequences was subcloned from pC53-SN3 (provided by Dr. Bert Vogelstein, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD) into the pSP73 vector (Promega Corp., Madison, WI). A plasmid from Ambion, Inc., carrying a proprietary mutant p53 sequence, was used to generate a control RNA probe.

Western Blotting.
E6-AP polyclonal antibody was kindly provided by Dr. P. Beer-Romero, Mitotix, Inc., Cambridge, MA (18) . For p53 detection, the primary antibody was DO-1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA). For immunoprecipitation and Western blot detection of E6 protein, monoclonal antibody C1 x 1 and C1P5 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), respectively, were used. As the secondary antibody, horseradish peroxidase conjugated antimouse and antirabbit antibodies (Transduction Laboratories, Lexington, KY) were used as appropriate.

For Western blotting, protein samples were boiled in sample buffer prior to loading on a Laemmli gel. SDS-PAGE was carried out in a Tris-glycine buffer system under constant voltage. Separated proteins were transferred overnight on a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane (Immobilon-P; Millipore, Bedford, MA) in the cold, under constant voltage of 30–60V, in 25 mM Tris, 190 mM glycine, and 20% methanol. Blotted membranes were blocked in TBS-T (20 mM Tris, 137 mM NaCl, and 0.1% Tween 20, pH 7.6) with 5% milk (Blotto) for 30 min and then incubated with the appropriate antibody dilution in Blotto for 1 h and 15 min at room temperature. Blots were then washed with TBS-T and incubated with secondary antibody at 1:4000 dilution in Blotto for 45 min. Blotted antigens were detected using chemoluminescence detection (DuPont NEN, Boston, MA). Protein standards (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) were used. The quality of transfer was assessed by staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G (Sigma).

Northern Blots.
RNA was isolated by the acid phenol method (32) . Aliquots of 20 µg of total mRNA were separated through a 1.2% agarose gel containing 6% formaldehyde. The RNA was transferred to nylon membrane (Hybond N; Amersham, Arlington, IL) by blotting in 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) at 1 Amp for 2 h and fixed by UV irradiation. Blots were prehybridized with calf thymus DNA in 50% formamide, 1 M NaCl, 0.5% SDS for 1 h at 42oC before overnight hybridization to radiolabeled probes corresponding to p21waf-1, E6-AP, or p53 cDNAs. The cDNA probes were labeled with [32P]dCTP (3000 Ci/mmol; DuPont NEN, Boston, MA) using standard random priming method. Membranes were washed in 0.1 M NaCl, 0.1% SDS at 65oC and subjected to autoradiography. To control for loading and blotting variations, gels were stained with ethidium bromide and photographed.

cDNA Sequencing.
Poly(A)+ mRNA from HeLa, HA, and HF was isolated on poly dT resin (Amersham, Arlington, IL) after acid extraction. Exons 4 to 11 were amplified by reverse transcription-PCR, using the Ambion p53 mutation detection kit according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Ambion, Inc.). Multiple clones were subcloned into the plasmid pCR (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA). Both strands of seven cDNA clones from each of HeLa, HA, and HF were subjected to sequencing and compared with wild-type p53 sequences. The region from amino acids 280 to 865 of E6-AP was also subjected to sequencing. The following overlapping primers were used to amplify corresponding fragments of E6-AP from cDNA: primer 1, 5'-CTGCTGCTGCTATGGAAGAAGAC-3'; primer 2, 5'-GGAAACACCTCCCTCATCAACTC-3'; primer 3, 5'-CTTGAAGAAGCAGTTGTATGTG-3'; primer 4, 5'-GATCATACATCATTGGGTTACC-3'; primer 5, 5'-GAATGTGGAAGATGACATG-3'; primer 6, 5'-CTGTGCCCGTTGTAA-ACTGC-3'; primer 7, 5'-GAAATCGTTCATTCATTTAC-3'; and primer 8, 5'-TTACAGCATGCCAAATCC-3'. All sequencing reactions were performed at a core sequencing laboratory on an ABI Prizm Sequencer.

RNase Protection Assay.
An RNase protection assay was used for the detection of mutations within the p53 cDNA sequences. Plasmid pSP73-p53-B/S was linearized with HindIII, and a labeled antisense strand was synthesized from the T7 RNase polymerase promoter. The assay was performed using an RNase protection kit (Ambion, Inc.) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. A second probe, synthesized from proprietary plasmid and carrying a mutant p53 sequence, was used as a positive control for mutation detection. A ß-actin probe, synthesized with T7 polymerase from HindIII-linearized pBH-11, was used as an internal control. Riboprobes were labeled with [{alpha}-32P]UTP at 15 Ci/mmol (DuPont NEN). Ten µg of total RNA were hybridized with wild-type or mutant p53 probe and with the ß-actin control probe in the same reaction tube. The samples were digested with RNase A and RNase T1, and the protected fragments were separated in a 5% denaturing polyacrylamide gel. The gel was then dried and exposed to Kodak X-AR film.

CAT Assays.
Approximately 5 x 106 cells were transiently transfected by electroporation with 10 mg of pG13CAT or pMG15CAT or subjected to pulse in the absence of DNA. The pG13CAT and pMG15CAT reporter constructs are comprised of the polyoma virus early promoter and the CAT gene positioned downstream of 13 wild-type or 15 mutated repeats of a p53 binding sequence, respectively. Electroporation was carried out at room temperature in culture medium at 270 mV/cm2 (Gene Pulser; Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). Cell lysates were prepared 48 h after transfection, and a continuous enzymatic assay was carried out over a time course of 3 h to quantitate CAT activity. Linear curves of CAT activity over time were plotted, and relative CAT activity rates were calculated using the Cricket Graph software. Half of each cell sample was used in a PCR-based assay to normalize for transfection efficiency between samples, as described previously in Bahramian and Zarbl (33) .

p53 Half-Life Determination.
Subconfluent cell culture (2–4 x 106) cells were incubated overnight in DMEM supplemented with 10% calf serum. Cells were treated with CHX (20 µg/ml) for 15, 30, 50, or 60 min. Cells were washed with ice-cold PBS and lysed in RIPA buffer on ice for 30 min. Cell lysates were centrifuged, and equal amounts of protein were subjected to Western blotting. The p53 protein was quantitated using NIH Image software and plotted as a percentage of p53 remaining. The average of three experiments was used to calculate the half-life of the p53 by regression analysis (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA).

Cell Cycle Analysis.
Unsinchronized cells, 70–80% confluent, were treated with 1 nM of actinomycin D or 250 µM L-mimosine (Sigma). In 24 h, cells were trypsinized and fixed in 35% ethanol, stained with propidium iodide, and then analyzed on a Becton Dickinson flow cytometer. In some experiments after 20 h of actinomycin D treatment or a single dose of irradiation (6 Gy), cells were labeled with 40 µM BrdUrd (Sigma) for an additional 4 h. Incorporation of BrdUrd were detected with anti-BrdUrd antibody conjugated with FITC (Caltag, San Francisco, CA). Cells incorporating BrdUrd were detected and analyzed on a Becton Dickinson flow cytometer.

Acknowledgments

We are indebted to Deb Mossinsky and Bert Vogelstein for the gift of plasmids, to J. M. Huibregtse for the E6-AP cDNA, and to P. Beer-Romero for E6-AP antibody. We thank David Schauer for his unfailing support of this work and to Scott Lowe for helpful discussions, comments, and encouragement.

Footnotes

The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked advertisement in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

1 This work was supported by USPHS Grant CA 47571 from the NIH (to H. Z.). L. J., a graduate student from the Department of Genetics at China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China, was partially supported by a Fellowship from the Chinese Medical Board. B. H. was the recipient of a Postdoctoral Fellowship from the Fonds de la Recherche en Sante du Quebec, Quebec, Canada. Back

2 These two authors made equally significant contributions to these studies. Back

3 Present address: Institut du Cancer de Montreal, Centre de Recherche Louis-Charles Simard, Hôpital Notre-Dame, Montreal, Quebec, H2L 4M1 Canada. Back

4 To whom requests for reprints should be addressed, at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Mail Stop C1-015, P. O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109. Phone: (206) 667-4108; Fax: (206) 667-5815. Back

5 The abbreviations used are: Rb, retinoblastoma; E6-AP, E6-associated protein; CHX, cycloheximide; CAT, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase; BrdUrd, bromodeoxyuridine. Back

6 A. Mikheev and H. Zarbl, unpublished observations. Back

Received for publication 3/15/99. Revision received 8/ 3/99. Accepted for publication 9/ 3/99.

References

  1. Alani R. M., Munger K. Human papillomaviruses and associated malignancies. J. Clin. Oncol., 16: 330-337, 1998.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  2. Munger K., Scheffner M., Huibregtse J. M., Howley P. M. Interactions of HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins with tumour suppressor gene products. Cancer Surv., 12: 197-217, 1992.[Medline]
  3. Nevins J. R. Cell cycle targets of the DNA tumor viruses. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev., 4: 130-134, 1994.[Medline]
  4. Scheffner M., Romanczuk H., Munger K., Huibregtse J. M., Mietz J. A., Howley P. M. Functions of human papillomavirus proteins. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol., 186: 83-99, 1994.[Medline]
  5. Kirsch D. G., Kastan M. B. Tumor-suppressor p53 : implications for tumor development and prognosis. J. Clin. Oncol., 16: 3158-3168, 1998.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  6. Zambetti G. P., Levine A. J. A comparison of the biological activities of wild-type and mutant p53. FASEB J., 7: 855-865, 1993.[Abstract]
  7. Canman C. E., Chen C. Y., Lee M. H., Kastan M. B. DNA damage responses: p53 induction, cell cycle perturbations, and apoptosis. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 59: 277-286, 1994.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  8. Hall P. A., Lane D. P. Genetics of growth arrest and cell death: key determinants of tissue homeostasis. Eur. J. Cancer, 30A: 2001-2012, 1994.
  9. Nelson W. G., Kastan M. B. DNA strand breaks: the DNA template alterations that trigger p53-dependent DNA damage response pathways. Mol. Cell. Biol., 14: 1815-1823, 1994.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  10. Kastan M. B., Kuerbitz S. J. Control of G1 arrest after DNA damage. Environ. Health Perspect., 101 (Suppl. 5): 55-58, 1993.
  11. Lowe S. W., Jacks T., Housman D. E., Ruley H. E. Abrogation of oncogene-associated apoptosis allows transformation of p53-deficient cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 91: 2026-2030, 1994.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  12. Lane D. P., Lu X., Hupp T., Hall P. A. The role of the p53 protein in the apoptotic response. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci., 345: 277-280, 1994.[Medline]
  13. Huibregtse J. M., Beaudenon S. L. Mechanism of HPV E6 proteins in cellular transformation. Semin. Cancer Biol., 7: 317-326, 1996.[Medline]
  14. Boylan M. O., Athanassiou M., Houle B., Wang Y., Zarbl H. Activation of tumor suppressor genes in nontumorigenic revertants of the HeLa cervical carcinoma cell line. Cell Growth Differ., 7: 725-735, 1996.[Abstract]
  15. Scheffner M. Ubiquitin, E6-AP, and their role in p53 inactivation. Pharmacol. Ther., 78: 129-139, 1998.[Medline]
  16. Huibregtse J. M., Scheffner M., Howley P. M. E6-AP directs the HPV E6-dependent inactivation of p53 and is representative of a family of structurally and functionally related proteins. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 59: 237-245, 1994.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  17. Talis A. L., Huibregtse J. M., Howley P. M. The role of E6-AP in the regulation of p53 protein levels in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative cells. J. Biol. Chem., 273: 6439-6445, 1998.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  18. Beer-Romero P., Glass S., Rolfe M. Antisense targeting of E6-AP elevates p53 in HPV-infected cells but not in normal cells. Oncogene, 14: 595-602, 1997.[Medline]
  19. Scheffner M., Munger K., Byrne J. C., Howley P. M. The state of the p53 and retinoblastoma genes in human cervical carcinoma cell lines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 88: 5523-5527, 1991.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  20. Huibregtse J. M., Scheffner M., Howley P. M. Cloning and expression of the cDNA for E6-AP, a protein that mediates the interaction of the human papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein with p53. Mol. Cell. Biol., 13: 775-784, 1993.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  21. Maheswaran S., Englert C., Bennett P., Heinrich G., Haber D. A. The WT1 gene product stabilizes p53 and inhibits p53-mediated apoptosis. Genes Dev., 9: 2143-2156, 1995.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  22. el-Deiry W. S., Kern S. E., Pietenpol J. A., Kinzler K. W., Vogelstein B. Definition of a consensus binding site for p53. Nat. Genet., 1: 45-49, 1992.[Medline]
  23. el-Deiry W. S., Harper J. W., O’Connor P. M., Velculescu V. E., Canman C. E., Jackman J., Pietenpol J. A., Burrell M., Hill D. E., Wang Y., Winan K. G., Mercer W. E., Kastan M. B., Kohn K. W., Elledge S. J., Kinzler K. W., Vogelstein B. WAF1/CIP1 is induced in p53-mediated G1 arrest and apoptosis. Cancer Res., 54: 1169-1174, 1994.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  24. Alpan R. S., Pardee A. B. p21waf-1WAF1/CIP1/SDI1 is elevated through a p53-independent pathway by mimosine. Cell Growth Differ., 7: 893-901, 1996.[Abstract]
  25. Laird D. W., Castillo M., Kasprzak L. Gap junction turnover, intracellular trafficking, and phosphorylation of connexin43 in brefeldin A-treated rat mammary tumor cells. J. Cell Biol., 131: 1193-1203, 1995.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  26. Harper J. W., Adami G. R., Wei N., Keyomarsi K., Elledge S. J. The p21waf-1 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. Cell, 75: 805-816, 1993.[Medline]
  27. Demers G. W., Foster S. A., Halbert C. L., Galloway D. A. Growth arrest by induction of p53 in DNA damaged keratinocytes is bypassed by human papillomavirus 16 E7. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 91: 4382-4386, 1994.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  28. Brugarolas J., Moberg K., Boyd S. D., Taya Y., Jacks T., Lees J. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 by p21waf-1 is necessary for retinoblastoma protein-mediated G1 arrest after irradiation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96: 1002-1007, 1999.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  29. Funk J. O., Waga S., Harry J. B., Espling E., Stillman B., Galloway D. A. Inhibition of CDK activity and PCNA-dependent DNA replication by p21waf-1 is blocked by interaction with the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein. Genes Dev., 11: 2090-2100, 1997.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
  30. Urbani L., Sherwood S. W., Schimke R. T. Dissociation of nuclear and cytoplasmic cell cycle progression by drugs employed in cell synchronization. Exp. Cell Res., 219: 159-168, 1995.[Medline]
  31. Hughes T. A., Cook P. R. Mimosine arrests the cell cycle after cells enter S-phase. Exp. Cell Res., 222: 275-280, 1996.[Medline]
  32. Chomczynski P., Sacchi N. Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal. Biochem., 162: 156-159, 1987.[Medline]
  33. Bahramian M. B., Zarbl H. Direct gene quantitation by PCR reveals differential accumulation of ectopic enzyme in rat-1 cells, v-fos transformants, and revertants. PCR Methods Appl., 4: 145-153, 1994.[Medline]



This article has been cited by other articles:


Home page
J. Virol.Home page
R. L. Turner, P. Groitl, T. Dobner, and D. A. Ornelles
Adenovirus Replaces Mitotic Checkpoint Controls
J. Virol., May 1, 2015; 89(9): 5083 - 5096.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]


Home page
Mol Cancer ResHome page
T. Zhang, P. Wang, H. Ren, J. Fan, and G. Wang
NGFI-B Nuclear Orphan Receptor Nurr1 Interacts with p53 and Suppresses Its Transcriptional Activity
Mol. Cancer Res., August 1, 2009; 7(8): 1408 - 1415.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]


Home page
Mol. Cell. Biol.Home page
O. I. Koues, R. K. Dudley, A. D. Truax, D. Gerhardt, K. P. Bhat, S. McNeal, and S. F. Greer
Regulation of Acetylation at the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Proximal Promoter by the 19S Proteasomal ATPase Sug1
Mol. Cell. Biol., October 1, 2008; 28(19): 5837 - 5850.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]


Home page
Cancer Res.Home page
N. Ke, G. Claassen, D.-H. Yu, A. Albers, W. Fan, P. Tan, M. Grifman, X. Hu, K. DeFife, V. Nguy, et al.
Nuclear Hormone Receptor NR4A2 Is Involved in Cell Transformation and Apoptosis
Cancer Res., November 15, 2004; 64(22): 8208 - 8212.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]


Home page
Cancer Res.Home page
S. Takahashi, S. Saito, N. Ohtani, and T. Sakai
Involvement of the Oct-1 Regulatory Element of the gadd45 Promoter in the p53-independent Response to Ultraviolet Irradiation
Cancer Res., February 1, 2001; 61(3): 1187 - 1195.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]


Home page
Clin. Cancer Res.Home page
T. Itoshima, T. Fujiwara, T. Waku, J. Shao, M. Kataoka, W. G. Yarbrough, T.-J. Liu, J. A. Roth, N. Tanaka, and M. Kodama
Induction of Apoptosis in Human Esophageal Cancer Cells by Sequential Transfer of the Wild-Type p53 and E2F-1 Genes: Involvement of p53 Accumulation via ARF-mediated MDM2 Down-Regulation
Clin. Cancer Res., July 1, 2000; 6(7): 2851 - 2859.
[Abstract] [Full Text]


This Article
Right arrow Abstract Freely available
Right arrow Full Text (PDF)
Right arrow Alert me when this article is cited
Right arrow Alert me if a correction is posted
Services
Right arrow Similar articles in this journal
Right arrow Similar articles in PubMed
Right arrow Alert me to new issues of the journal
Right arrow Download to citation manager
Right arrow
Citing Articles
Right arrow Citing Articles via HighWire
Right arrow Citing Articles via Google Scholar
Google Scholar
Right arrow Articles by Athanassiou, M.
Right arrow Articles by Mikheev, A. M.
Right arrow Search for Related Content
PubMed
Right arrow PubMed Citation
Right arrow Articles by Athanassiou, M.
Right arrow Articles by Mikheev, A. M.


HOME HELP FEEDBACK SUBSCRIPTIONS ARCHIVE SEARCH TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cancer Research Clinical Cancer Research
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Molecular Cancer Research Cell Growth & Differentiation