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Cell Growth & Differentiation, Vol 7, Issue 3 289-300, Copyright © 1996 by American Association of Cancer Research


ARTICLES

Gamma-interferon induces an irreversible growth arrest in mid-G1 in mammary epithelial cells which correlates with a block in hyperphosphorylation of retinoblastoma

BL Harvat and AM Jetten
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.

In this study, we analyze effects of IFN-gamma on the proliferation of normal human mammary epithelial cells (MECs) and several mammary carcinoma cell lines. We demonstrate that IFN-gamma blocks the proliferation of MECs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This growth arrest is irreversible and occurs at a specific stage in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. IFN-gamma caused a rapid (within 12-24 h) down-regulation of cyclin A, c-myc, and cdc2 proteins, as well as a disappearance of hyperphosphorylated forms of the retinoblastoma family proteins, Rb and p130. The synthesis of several other growth control proteins, p53, p21/Waf1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, was down-regulated between 24 and 48 h. In MECs synchronized by epidermal growth factor deprivation and released for cell cycle traverse by re-addition of epidermal growth factor to the medium, IFN-gamma was able to block DNA synthesis only if added in the first 6 to 7 h after epidermal growth factor. The block in Rb phosphorylation and cyclin A expression was coordinately regulated during the same narrow window of G1. Several mammary carcinoma cell lines demonstrated resistance to the growth-inhibitory effects of IFN-gamma and did not exhibit down-regulation of cdc2 and cyclin A expression or a change in hyperphosphorylation of Rb when treated with IFN-gamma. Initial studies suggest, in some carcinoma cell lines, that resistance to IFN-gamma may be caused by defects in the IFN-gamma signal transduction pathway (measured by expression of the IFN-gamma-responsive gene GBP), while resistance in others may be due to defects in cell cycle regulatory proteins that are the targets of IFN-gamma action.


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Cancer Research Clinical Cancer Research
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Molecular Cancer Research Cell Growth & Differentiation
Copyright © 1996 by the American Association of Cancer Research.