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Cell Growth & Differentiation, Vol 7, Issue 12 1741-1749, Copyright © 1996 by American Association of Cancer Research


ARTICLES

Identification of a set of protein species approximately 40 kDa as high-affinity DNA binding factor(s) to the cell cycle regulatory region of the human thymidine kinase promoter

EC Kim, SL Rawlings, LJ Li, B Roy and AS Lee
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles 90033-0800, USA.

Promoter elements that are important for the G1-S induction of the human thymidine kinase (htk) promoter reside within the core of the cell cycle regulatory unit, positioned between -110 and -84 upstream of the TATA element. Within this 27-bp region are three GC-rich motifs, which resemble the E2F binding site. By site-directed mutagenesis, we identified a 14-bp region, between -97 and -84, critical for the htk promoter transcriptional activity. Methylation interference studies indicate that the sequences between -97 and -84 are major protein contact points, correlating with the functional significance of this sequence in vivo. Although the core of the cell cycle regulatory unit contains three E2F-like sites and can form minor S-phase-specific complexes containing p107, cyclin A, and cdk2, the major complex that binds to this region is not competed by E2F binding sites. Through DNA affinity chromatography, we identified a set of protein species of approximately 40 kDa that copurified with the htk DNA binding activity. From gel shift assays and Western blot analysis, this protein species is antigenically distinct from E2F-1, E2F-2, E2F-3, and E2F-4. Our studies raise the possibility that other members of the E2F protein family or a novel protein(s) with preferred binding affinity for the htk promoter exert(s) control on the G1 to S regulation of the htk promoter through their interactions with cyclins and kinases.


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HOME HELP FEEDBACK SUBSCRIPTIONS ARCHIVE SEARCH TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cancer Research Clinical Cancer Research
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Molecular Cancer Research Cell Growth & Differentiation
Copyright © 1996 by the American Association of Cancer Research.