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Cell Growth & Differentiation, Vol 7, Issue 11 1579-1588, Copyright © 1996 by American Association of Cancer Research


ARTICLES

Directed mutagenesis reveals that two histidines in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 are each essential for the suppression of cell migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity

SE Walther and DT Denhardt
Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08815, USA.

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are secreted proteins that regulate the activity of metalloproteinases, enzymes important in development, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis. To assess the importance of three highly conserved amino acids, His7, Asp16, and His95, in determining the biological properties of mouse TIMP-1, they were mutated into Arg, Tyr, and Arg, respectively. Recombinant vectors constructed to express the wild-type and mutant TIMP-1 proteins under the control of the metallothionein promoter were transfected into mouse melanoma B16F10 cells, which produce very little TIMP-1. Individual clones were isolated and characterized by Southern, Northern, and Western blotting to verify the presence of the TIMP-1 minigene and its expression. Analyses of conditioned media for collagenase-inhibiting activity indicated that both histidine mutants, but not the aspartic acid mutant, were functionally impaired. An investigation of the cell migration, matrix invasion, and tumor formation capabilities of several individual clones representing each of the mutants revealed that the His7Arg and His95Arg mutations, but not the Asp16Tyr mutation, largely abolished the ability of the protein to inhibit all of these activities. These data establish that for B16F10 cells, endogenously generated TIMP-1 is an effective inhibitor not only of matrix invasion and tumorigenicity but also, unexpectedly, of cell motility on plastic. The novel finding that both His7 and His95 are separately essential for significant TIMP-1 activity in vivo provides an important new insight into TIMP-1 function.





HOME HELP FEEDBACK SUBSCRIPTIONS ARCHIVE SEARCH TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cancer Research Clinical Cancer Research
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Molecular Cancer Research Cell Growth & Differentiation
Copyright © 1996 by the American Association of Cancer Research.