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Cell Growth & Differentiation, Vol 5, Issue 2 133-141, Copyright © 1994 by American Association of Cancer Research


ARTICLES

Down-regulation of retinoic acid receptor beta in mammary carcinoma cell lines and its up-regulation in senescing normal mammary epithelial cells

K Swisshelm, K Ryan, X Lee, HC Tsou, M Peacocke and R Sager
Division of Cancer Genetics, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Retinoids are important cellular, dietary factors that regulate differentiation and cellular growth. They serve as ligands for specific nuclear receptors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Ligand-activated receptors regulate gene transcription through target retinoic acid-responsive elements (RAREs) found in promoter regions. We have investigated the expression of retinoic acid receptor genes (alpha, beta, gamma) and retinoid X receptor beta in normal, senescing, and tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells. We find that most tumor cells show a loss of RAR-beta expression, but that RAR-alpha and -gamma as well as retinoid X receptor beta are variably expressed in both normal and tumor cells. RAR-beta gene expression is induced both by retinoic acid and by fenretinide in normal cells, but tumor cells fail to respond to either. In contrast, RAR-beta expression increases with serial passage in senescing cells. Paradoxically, both normal and tumor cells can trans-activate an exogenous beta-RARE, as demonstrated by reporter gene assays. Oligonucleotide mobility shift assays with the beta-RARE show a single discrete complex in normal cells, whereas tumor cells exhibit a heterogeneous set of larger complexes, which indicates that tumor cells utilize a different array of factors within the beta-RARE. Reporter gene assays with extended promoter regions indicate the presence of negative regulatory elements and/or factor binding sites that reside between -1500 and the RARE located at -59, and that the promoter is down-regulated in MCF-7 tumor cells. Our findings reveal a dichotomy: RAR-beta transcription is down-regulated in tumor cells compared with normal human mammary epithelial cells, and up-regulated in senescence.


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HOME HELP FEEDBACK SUBSCRIPTIONS ARCHIVE SEARCH TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cancer Research Clinical Cancer Research
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Molecular Cancer Research Cell Growth & Differentiation
Copyright © 1994 by the American Association of Cancer Research.