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Cell Growth & Differentiation, Vol 1, Issue 9 407-420, Copyright © 1990 by American Association of Cancer Research


ARTICLES

Transforming growth factor-alpha expression is enhanced in human mammary epithelial cells transformed by an activated c-Ha-ras protooncogene but not by the c-neu protooncogene, and overexpression of the transforming growth factor-alpha complementary DNA leads to transformation

F Ciardiello, ML McGeady, N Kim, F Basolo, N Hynes, BC Langton, H Yokozaki, T Saeki, JW Elliott and H Masui
Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

MCF-10A cells are a spontaneously immortalized normal human mammary epithelial cell line. MCF-10A cells were transfected with two expression vector plasmids containing either a human point-mutated c-Ha-ras protooncogene or the rat c-neu protooncogene. c-Ha-ras-transfected MCF-10A cells grow as colonies in soft agar, exhibit a 3- to 4-fold increase in their growth rate in serum-free medium, and show a reduced mitogenic response to exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) or transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) as compared to MCF-10A cells. c-Ha-ras-transfected MCF-10A cells express a 4- to 8-fold increase in TGF alpha mRNA levels and secrete 4- to 6-fold more TGF alpha protein as compared to MCF-10A cells. Addition of either an anti-TGF alpha neutralizing monoclonal antibody or an anti-EGF receptor blocking monoclonal antibody to the Ha-ras-transformed MCF-10A cells produces a 50 to 80% inhibition of colony formation of these cells in soft agar. c-neu-transfected MCF-10A cells grown in soft agar and exhibit an increase in their growth rate in serum-free medium at a level comparable to that observed in Ha-ras-transformed MCF-10A cells. Addition of an anti-c-erbB-2 monoclonal antibody inhibits the anchorage-independent growth of these cells in soft agar. However, c-neu-transformed MCF-10A cells show no increase in TGF alpha secretion and no change in their responsiveness to exogenous EGF or TGF alpha. A recombinant retroviral vector containing the human TGF alpha gene was also introduced into MCF-10A cells. TGF alpha-infected MCF-10A cells secrete 15- to 20-fold more TGF alpha protein than MCF-10A cells, form colonies in soft agar, exhibit an enhanced growth rate in serum-free medium, and show a decreased mitogenic response to exogenous EGF or TGF alpha at a level equivalent to Ha-ras-transformed MCF-10A cells. Growth of TGF alpha-infected MCF-10A cells in soft agar is completely inhibited by anti-TGF alpha neutralizing or anti-EGF receptor blocking monoclonal antibodies. These results suggest that TGF alpha is an intermediary in the transformation of human mammary epithelial cells by an activated c-Ha-ras gene, but not by the c-neu gene, and demonstrate that overexpression of this growth factor is able to transform immortalized human mammary epithelial cells which also express a sufficient complement of functional EGF receptors.


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HOME HELP FEEDBACK SUBSCRIPTIONS ARCHIVE SEARCH TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cancer Research Clinical Cancer Research
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Molecular Cancer Research Cell Growth & Differentiation
Copyright © 1990 by the American Association of Cancer Research.